From both an individual and a public health perspective, frailty is one of the most important conditions affecting older people. Along with dementia, which is really just cognitive as opposed to physical frailty, it is a devastating syndrome. Frailty predisposes to recurrent hospitalizations and leads to the dreaded cascade of iatrogenic complications once someone is in the hospital. Frailty leads to nursing home placement and to disability and death. So a recent consensus statement discussing how to approach frailty is one of the most exciting and significant papers to appear in the recent geriatric literature. Published in a third tier medical journal, it’s only by chance that I stumbled on the article at all.
The consensus paper, authored by 20 geriatricians and including some of the most distinguished figures in the field, is based on a conference convened a year ago for the sole purpose of arriving at a shared perspective on frailty. It offers a definition of frailty, a few validated simple screening tests, several possible medical interventions, and the recommendation that physicians routinely screen for the disorder in people over age 70. The definition the authors came up with is “a medical syndrome with multiple causes and contributions that is characterized by diminished strength, endurance, and reduced physiologic function that increases an individual’s vulnerability for developing increased dependency and death.” Sounds like something written by a committee, but it hits all the high points. One of the screening tools the authors favor is the FRAIL questionnaire. Ask 5 simple questions: are you tired (Fatigue); are you unable to walk up 1 flight of stairs (Resistance); are you unable to walk 1 block (Aerobic); do you have more than 5 illnesses (Illness); and have you lost more than 5% of your weight in the past 6 months (Loss of weight). A score of 3 or greater (a yes answer counts as 1 point) indicates frailty. A score of 1 or 2 implies pre-frailty.
Frailty can seldom be cured and is often progressive, but in some cases it can be ameliorated. Exercise, nutrition, and medications can all help. In particular, the authors cite a review article indicating that 45-60 minutes of exercise done 3 times a week is beneficial. Calorie supplements can promote weight gain and reduced mortality in those frail old people who are undernourished. In people with a low vitamin D blood level , vitamin D supplements can reduce falls, hip fractures, and mortality. Reviewing all prescription medications and getting rid of selected drugs can also be useful. Finally, the conference concluded that primary care physicians as well as other clinicians should routinely screen for frailty in the geriatric population.
No one wants to be labeled “frail.” It’s up there along with “elderly” or “old” as a term everyone seems to want to avoid. But far better to prevent or treat the condition than to pretend it doesn’t exist. It’s time for doctors to pay attention to frailty—to recognize when it’s present and to intervene when possible. How’s that for a New Year’s Resolution!
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